Inflammation in the brain has been implicated in several disease processes such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and cognitive impairment and dementia. While AD and cognitive impairment are the two most common forms of dementia, they are not mutually exclusive and it is estimated that 60% of AD patients also have cerebrovascular pathology contributing to the clinical syndrome. Neuro inflammation is a prominent feature of Alzheimer disease (AD). It exacerbates the fundamental pathology by generating a plethora of inflammatory mediators and neurotoxic compounds. Inflammatory cytokines, complement components, and toxic free radicals are among the many species that are generated. Neuro inflammation seems to be an adaptive reaction aiming to restore brain integrity, chronic inflammation appears to be an injurious process, resulting in progressive neurodegeneration. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been re-conceptualized as a dynamic pathophysiological process, where the accumulation of amyloid-beta (A?) is thought to trigger a cascade of neurodegenerative events resulting in cognitive impairment and, eventually, dementia. In addition to A? pathology, various lines of research have implicated neuro inflammation as an important participant in AD pathophysiology.